Linus rants at the security community again – bravo

https://lkml.org/lkml/2017/11/17/767

Linus goes off on the security community who keep trying to make sweeping, under-tested, destabilizing changes to the kernel, and while his delivery leaves something to be desired, the message is welcome and apparently remains necessary.  Making radical changes that do nothing to help the system operators and users know what’s going on, or be able to control or even just report the issues, is shall we say frustrating.

keep-calm-and-burn-it-down-5

It’s this kind of flagrant power play by security mavens that irks the rest of us to homicidal degree. It punishes the user in the hopes that that user will push the pain uphill to the originator of the buggy code.

Except that no typical user (i.e. 99% of the computing end user population) even *recognises* that the problem is with the calling code (app, driver) rather than the OS (“computer”, “CPU”, “crap phone”) that is merely trained to enforce these extreme behaviours.

I find after a couple of decades in infosec land that this is motivated by the disregard security folks have for the end user victims of this whole tug-of-war, which seems so often to break down to “I’m sick of chasing software developers to convince them to fix their bugs, so instead let’s make the bug ‘obvious’ to the end users and then the users will chase down the software developers for me”.

Immediate kernel panic may have been an appropriate response decades ago when operators, programmers and users were closely tied in space and culture. It may even still be an appropriate posture for some mission-critical and highly-sensitive systems, if you favour “protection” over stability.

It is increasingly ridiculous for the user of most other systems to have any idea how to communicate with the powers that be what happened and have that turned into a fix in a viable timeframe – let alone rely on instrumented, aggregated, anonymized crash reports be fed en masse to the few vendors who know let alone have the time to request, retrieve and paw through millions of such reports looking for the few needles in haystacks.

Punish the victim and offload the *real* work of security (i.e. getting bugs fixed) to people least interested and least expert at it? Yeah, good luck.

It is entirely appropriate in an increasing number of circumstances to soften the approach and try warning the user and trusting them with a little power to make some decisions themselves (rather than arbitrarily punish them for mistakes not their own).

I love many of my colleagues in the security community dearly, and wouldn’t tell them to quit their jobs, but goddamn do we quickly forget that the options are not just “PREVENT” but also “DETECT” and “CORRECT”. I’m glad to see that Kees Cook’s followup clarifies that he’s already looking into this, and learning that such violent change to a kernel can’t be swallowed whole.

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When will DevSecOps resemble DevOps?

https://www-forbes-com.cdn.ampproject.org/c/s/www.forbes.com/sites/jasonbloomberg/2017/11/20/mitigate-digital-transformation-cybersecurity-risk-with-devsecops/amp/

Another substance-free treatise on the glories of DevSecOps.

“Security is everyone’s job”, “everyone should care about security” and “we can’t just automate this job” seems to be the standard mantra, a decade on.

Which is entirely frustrating to those of us who are tired of security people pointing out the problems and then running as soon as there’s talk of the backbreaking labour of actually fixing the security issues, let alone making substantive system improvements that reduce their frequency in the future.

Hell, we even get a subheading that implies it’ll advance security goals in a CI/CD world: “The Role of Tooling in DevSecOps”. Except that there’s nothing more than a passing wave hello to Coverity (a decent static analysis vendor, but not the start nor the finish of the problem space) and more talk of people & process.

Where’s the leading thinkers on secure configuration of your containers? Where’s the automated injection of tools that can enforce good security IAM and correct for the bad?

I am very tired of chasing Lucy’s football:

lucy-football

I’m tired of going out to DevSecOps discussions at meetups and conferences and hearing nothing that sounds like they “get” DevOps.

DevOps works in service of the customers, developers and the business in helping to streamline, reduce the friction of release and make it possible to get small chances out as fast and frequently as possible.

I’ve asked at each of those discussions, “What tools and automation can you recommend that gets security integrated into the CI/CD chain?”

And I’ve heard a number of unsatisfying answers, from “security is everyone’s job and they should be considering it before their code gets committed” all the way through to “we can’t talk about tools until we get the culture right”. Which are all just tap-dancing dodges around the basic principle: the emperor has no clothes.

If DevSecOps is nothing more than “fobbing the job off on developers” and “we don’t recommend or implement any tools in the CI/CD chain”, then you have no business jumping on the DevOps bandwagon as if you’re actively participating in the process.

If you’re reliant merely on the humans (not the technology) to improve security, and further that you’re pushing the problem onto the people *least* expert in the problem space, how can you possibly expect to help the business *accelerate* their results?

Yes I get that DevOps is more than merely tools, but if you believe Gene Kim (as I’m willing to do), it’s about three principles for which tools are an essential component:

  1. Flow (reduce the friction of delivery) and systems thinking (not kicking the can down to some other poor soul)
  2. Amplify feedback loops (make it easy and obvious to learn from mistakes)
  3. Create a culture of learning from failure.

Now, which of those does your infosec approach support?

Hell, tell me I’m wrong and you’ve got a stack of tooling integrated into your DevOps pipeline. Tell me what kinds of tools/scripts/immutable infrastructure you’ve got in that stack. I will kiss your feet to find out what the rest of us are missing!

Edit: thoughts

  • Obviously I’m glossing over some basic tools everyone should be using: linters.  Not that your out-of-the-box linter is going to directly catch any significant security issues, no – but that if you don’t even have your code following good coding standards, how the hell will your senior developers have the attention and stamina to perform high-quality, rapid code reviews when they’re getting distracted by off-pattern code constructions?
  • Further, all decent linters will accept custom rules, disabled/info-only settings to existing rules – giving you the ability to converge on an accepted baseline that all developers can agree to follow, and then slowly expand the footprint of those rules as the obvious issues get taken care of in early rounds.
  • Oh, and I stumbled across the DevSecCon series, where there are likely a number of tantalizing tidbits

Edit: found one!

Here’s a CI-friendly tool: Peach API Security

  • Good news: built to integrate directly into the DevOps CI pipeline, testing the OWASP Top Ten against your API.
  • Bad news: I’d love to report something good about it, but the evaluation experience is frustratingly disjointed and incomplete.  I’m guessing they don’t have a Product Manager on the job, because there are a lot of missing pieces in the sales-evaluation-and-adoption pipeline:
    • Product Details are hosted in a PDF file (rather than online, as is customary today), linked as “How to Download” but titled “How to Purchase”
    • Most “hyperlinks” in the PDF are non-functional
    • Confusing user flow to get to additional info – “Learn More” next to “How to Download” leads to a Data Sheet, the footer includes a generic “Datasheets” link that leads to a jumbled mass over overly-whitespaced links to additional documents on everything from “competitive cheatsheets” to “(randomly-selected-)industry-specific discussion” to “list of available test modules”
    • Documents have no common look-and-feel, layout, topic flow or art/branding identity (almost as if they’re generated by individuals who have no central coordination)
    • There are no browseable/downloadable evaluation guides to explain how the product works, how to configure it, what commands to use to integrate it into the various CI pipelines, how to read the output, example scripts to parse and alert on the output – lacking this, I can’t gain confidence that this tool is ready for production usage
    • No running/interrogable sample by which to observe the live behaviour (e.g. an AWS instance running against a series of APIs, whose code is hosted in public GitHub repos)
  • I know the guys at Deja Vu are better than this – their security consulting services are awesome – so I’m mystified why Peach Tech seems the forgotten stepchild.

Edit: found another!

Neuvector is fielding a “continuous container security” commercial tool.  This article is what tipped me off about them, and it happens to mention a couple of non-commercial ideas for container security that are worth checking out as well:

Edit: and an open source tool!

Zed Attack Proxy (ZAProxy), coordinated by OWASP, and hosted on github.  Many automatable, scripted capabilities to search for security vulnerabilities in your web applications.

 

 

Occupied Neurons, November Kunst

What Trader Joes Figured Out About Work Culture That My Other Past Employers Haven’t

http://engage.guidespark.com/talent-and-culture/what-trader-joes-figured-out-about-work-culture-that-my-other-past-employers-havent/

Holy shit folks, I could study this like the Torah for the rest of my professional life.  Open every conversation with open-ended question?  “There’s 1000 ways to do it right”?  Yes yes and yes.

Saving The World From Code

https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2017/09/saving-the-world-from-code/540393/

One of the most frustrating things for me, a part-time coder, is having so much difficulty following the state of things as expressed in semi-linear Code (don’t even get me started with Functional and async). When I’m trying to piece together code fragments from multiple sources, it’s nearly impossible for me to reason the complete working model – I end up writing out a stepwise process model, or changing variable names one at a time and iterating forever until I see which piece contributes what to the whole machine.

So this piece – and the underlying theme of “software is beyond the reasoning capacity of great humans” – resonates like hell for me.

Uncle Bob and Silver Bullets

https://www.hillelwayne.com/post/uncle-bob/

There’s only so much “blame the victim” I can stand in this world, and Uncle Bob is one of the loudest offenders. Yeah we should all get better at coding, and yeah we should hold ourselves accountable when it doesn’t measure up.

But what about the interim? How’s about standing on the shoulders of giants? Or leaning on our elders? Or centralising expertise and leaving others to be good at what they’re good at?

I’m all for not being expected to master the universe before getting on with the job of getting something out into the world to learn from it. If everyone waited until they were the best at every discipline involved in the making of things…well, you can imagine how bereft the world would be.

It’s actually a good reminder to dial back the damned voice in my (and your) head telling us we’re not good enough yet. Let’s make something useful, and find out how wrong we are in someone else’s eyes, by encountering the actual evidence of feedback.

What’s the Difference between JavaScript and ECMAScript?

When Do I Know I’m Ready for Redux?

https://medium.com/dailyjs/when-do-i-know-im-ready-for-redux-f34da253c85f

One of many think-pieces about whether and when to add Redux to a React.js app, and a helpful guide for those not already steeped in the experience of doing so.

Understanding ReactJS-Component life cycle

https://medium.com/@baphemot/understanding-reactjs-component-life-cycle-823a640b3e8d

Far too abstract for a non-expert to follow – this is a documentation piece, and not even a good one at that. Re-examine this in a year, maybe it’ll make sense by then. Experts only.

Presentational and Container Components

https://medium.com/@dan_abramov/smart-and-dumb-components-7ca2f9a7c7d0

An interesting pattern to note for later, when the app I’m working on scales to the point I find myself passing props through component layers.

Optimizing React Rendering (part 1)

https://flexport.engineering/optimizing-react-rendering-part-1-9634469dca02

Optimizing?  Bah – definitely too early for optimization in my app.  Got one page working.  Let’s leave this as a breadcrumb for future Mike.

Javascript Arrow Functions for Beginners

https://codeburst.io/javascript-arrow-functions-for-beginners-926947fc0cdc

I’ll re-read this until it sinks in.  Lambda notation mystifies me, but probably I just need to implement it a hundred times or so and my brain will settle down.

WhoDidITalkTo: working ReactJS code!

You ever take a very long time to birth something small but ultimately, personally meaningful?

Me neither, but what I’m calling stage 1 of my ReactJS app is working to my liking.

WhoDidITalkTo is a personal work of love to help me remember all the wonderful encounters I have at Meetups and other such networking events.  It’s painful for me to keep forgetting the awesome conversations I’ve had with people, and have to confess I don’t remember someone who I very clearly made an impression on.  As someone with superhuman empathy, it’s crushing to see those hurt microexpressions cross their faces when they realize I’m no better than Leonard Shelby:

tumblr_m6igbdnbxr1qfola7o1_500
A little less dirty than him, usually

So I’m trying to remedy that, by giving myself a tool I can use from my phone to capture and review salient details from each new personal encounter I have at all the events I slut around to.

It’s prototype stage, and I have no dreams of monetizing this (so many startups have tried and failed to make this kind of “personal CRM lite” work and failed), and it’s a long ways from being fully functional in the field.  Still, I’m having fun seeing just how far I can stretch my rusty front end skills *and* treat this like a real Product Management project for myself.

If you’d like to peer inside my jumbled mind, this isn’t a bad place to see for yourself:
https://github.com/MikeTheCanuck/WhoDidITalkTo/projects/1

WhoDidITalkTo prototype v1

Occupied Neurons, September release

I’ve been scratching the itch of building an app for myself that solves a Job-to-be-done: when I’m networking, I want a tool to remind myself who are the weak ties in my network I’ve talked to, and what I’ve learned about them.  I want visual refreshers (photos I may have of them) and textual reminders of topics and things an otherwise-non-porous-memory would retain about people whose company I have previously enjoyed.

Using Firebase with ReactJS

In all the research I’m doing on prototyping a front end for my app, I’ve struggled to find something that’s more than “assemble every bespoke tag, class and id by hand” but less than “spend the next six months learning AngularJS”.  Focusing on the front-end to explore my user needs, I didn’t want to get stuck developing a big-ass (and probably unnecessary) back-end stack – even just adapting some well-defined pattern – so I started to explore Firebase [which is all front-end coding with a back-end data layer – to approximate it horribly].

And with a couple more explorations of the territory, I stumbled on the ReactJS “getting started” guide via the Hello World app, and finally understood how cool it is to have a pseudo-object-oriented approach to assembling the “V” in MVC.  (Who knows – for all I know, this is just vanilla ES6 now, and I’m just that far behind the times.)

Still, it is strikingly familiar in basic construction and with the promise of integrating a Firebase “backend” to give me a lightweight stack that will more than adequately perform for me as a single user, I’m finally willing to wade through the React Tutorial and see if that’s enough for me to piece together a working prototype

Props vs State in React

This is one of the more striking subtleties of React – how similar props and state are, and how it appears [at least to me] that the distinction is more a convention for others to understand how to use your React code, than anything that is required by the React compiler.

 

And on the Product Side of my mental tesseract…

I’ve also been refreshing my knowledge of the Product Management practices I haven’t had an opportunity to practice lately.  Amongst which:

How does a Product Manager perform competitive analysis?

This is the clearest-eyed explanation I’ve seen yet about “understanding your competition”.  I’ve worked with too many Product Marketing folks who get spun up about the checklist war, and making sure that we have feature parity in the product, and it’s always seemed like a lot of sound and fury, signifying nothing.

Focusing on “what problems does the competition solve for *YOU* dear customer, and why are those important to your core business?” is a whole lot more genuine *and* believable to me.  I’ve never thought of this line of questioning as “competitive analysis”, just part of doing my job to suss out what I can do to help my customers.

The Equifax breach – reckless endangerment of the US citizenry

UN-fucking-believable. I was hoping that this would turn out to be a situation where at the very least, Equifax had built defense-in-depth measures to limit the amount or type of information someone *could* get if an attacker exploited one of the innumerable vulnerabilities that exist on every modern software platform.

Nope – pretty much EVERY piece of sensitive personal data they have on more than half the US adult population was exposed as a result of this attack. Everything that any reasonable check of your identity or financial fitness would use to verify someone is you. Pretty nearly all the info a malicious individual would use to impersonate you, to obtain loans in your name, or file a tax return to get a refund, or screw with you life in many other highly-damaging ways.

Some choice quotes from https://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2017/09/why-the-equifax-breach-is-very-possibly-the-worst-leak-of-personal-info-ever/:

By providing full names, Social Security numbers, birth dates, addresses, and, in some cases, driver license numbers, it provided most of the information banks, insurance companies, and other businesses use to confirm consumers are who they claim to be.

That means well more than half of all US residents who rely the most on bank loans and credit cards are now at a significantly higher risk of fraud and will remain so for years to come.

Meanwhile, in the hours immediately following the breach disclosure, the main Equifax website was displaying debug codes, which for security reasons, is something that should never happen on any production server, especially one that is a server or two away from so much sensitive data. A mistake this serious does little to instill confidence company engineers have hardened the site against future devastating attacks [editorializing:…or even that the company’s engineers have half a clue what they can do to prevent the rest of the US’ personal data from leaking – if there’s even any left in their databases left to find].

The management and executives of this company should not only resign, but be brought on charges of criminal, reckless negligence on behalf of all Americans. They (along with the other two credit reporting agencies, and dozens of grey-market data hoarders) are stewards and power brokers over our lives, central/single points of failure in an economy that is nearly all digital, and which so fragily transacts on such thin premises of trust and explicit, positive assertions of identity.

We should not only be scared of how terribly their negligence endangers our lives for the rest of our lives, but be rationally and irrationally angry that the lobbyists and oligarchs have set up a system where these careless morons can and will walk away with a slap on the wrists, a cost-of-doing-business fine and strictures, for foreseeably ruining millions of lives and livelihoods.

What to do

I froze my credit after one of the big health insurer breaches a while back, and so far my life hasn’t been significantly inconvenienced – but the very fact that we each are forced to opt in to this measure, and insult-to-injury forced to pay for the privilege of preventing something none of us asked for, is just downright Mafia tactics.

You should probably freeze your credit too ASAP, because even if you weren’t affected this time, inevitably you were in the past or will be in the future. This brittle negligence and lack of accountability is what the US economy runs on

ImportError: No module named ‘rest_framework_swagger’

Summary

Building our Django app locally (i.e. no Docker container wrapping it) works great. Building the same app in Docker fails. Hint: make sure you know which requirements.txt file you’re using to build the app.  (And get familiar with the -f parameter for Docker commands.)

Problem

When I first started build the Docker container, I was getting the ImportError error after the container successfully builds:

ImportError: No module named 'rest_framework_swagger'

Research

The only half-useful hit on StackOverflow was this one, and it didn’t seem like it explicitly addressed my issue in Docker:

http://stackoverflow.com/questions/27369314/django-rest-framework-swagger-ui-importerror-no-module-named-rest-framework

…And The Lightning Bolt Struck

However, with enough time and desperation I finally understood that that article wasn’t wrong either.  I wasn’t using the /requirements.txt that contained all the dependencies – I was using the incomplete/abandoned /budget_proj/requirements.txt file, which lacked a key dependency.

Aside

I wasn’t watching the results of pip install closely enough – and when running Docker-compose up --build multiple times, the layer of interest won’t rebuild if there’s no changes to that layer’s inputs. (Plus this is a case where there’s no error message thrown, just one or two fewer pip installs – and who notices that until they’ve spent the better part of two days on the problem?)

Detailed Diagnostics

If you look closely at our project from that time, you’ll notice there are actually two copies of requirements.txt – one at the repo root and one in the /budget_proj/ folder.

Developers who are just testing Django locally will simply launch pip install -r requirements.txt from the root directory of their clone of the repo.  This is fine and good.  This is the result of the pip install -r requirements.txt when using the expected file:

$ pip install -r requirements.txt 
Collecting appdirs==1.4.0 (from -r requirements.txt (line 1))
 Using cached appdirs-1.4.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting Django==1.10.5 (from -r requirements.txt (line 2))
 Using cached Django-1.10.5-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting django-filter==1.0.1 (from -r requirements.txt (line 3))
 Using cached django_filter-1.0.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting django-rest-swagger==2.1.1 (from -r requirements.txt (line 4))
 Using cached django_rest_swagger-2.1.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting djangorestframework==3.5.4 (from -r requirements.txt (line 5))
 Using cached djangorestframework-3.5.4-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Requirement already satisfied: packaging==16.8 in ./budget_venv/lib/python3.5/site-packages (from -r requirements.txt (line 6))
Collecting psycopg2==2.7 (from -r requirements.txt (line 7))
 Using cached psycopg2-2.7-cp35-cp35m-macosx_10_6_intel.macosx_10_9_intel.macosx_10_9_x86_64.macosx_10_10_intel.macosx_10_10_x86_64.whl
Collecting pyparsing==2.1.10 (from -r requirements.txt (line 8))
 Using cached pyparsing-2.1.10-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting requests==2.13.0 (from -r requirements.txt (line 9))
 Using cached requests-2.13.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Requirement already satisfied: six==1.10.0 in ./budget_venv/lib/python3.5/site-packages (from -r requirements.txt (line 10))
Collecting gunicorn (from -r requirements.txt (line 12))
 Using cached gunicorn-19.7.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting openapi-codec>=1.2.1 (from django-rest-swagger==2.1.1->-r requirements.txt (line 4))
Collecting coreapi>=2.1.1 (from django-rest-swagger==2.1.1->-r requirements.txt (line 4))
Collecting simplejson (from django-rest-swagger==2.1.1->-r requirements.txt (line 4))
 Using cached simplejson-3.10.0-cp35-cp35m-macosx_10_11_x86_64.whl
Collecting uritemplate (from coreapi>=2.1.1->django-rest-swagger==2.1.1->-r requirements.txt (line 4))
 Using cached uritemplate-3.0.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting coreschema (from coreapi>=2.1.1->django-rest-swagger==2.1.1->-r requirements.txt (line 4))
Collecting itypes (from coreapi>=2.1.1->django-rest-swagger==2.1.1->-r requirements.txt (line 4))
Collecting jinja2 (from coreschema->coreapi>=2.1.1->django-rest-swagger==2.1.1->-r requirements.txt (line 4))
 Using cached Jinja2-2.9.5-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting MarkupSafe>=0.23 (from jinja2->coreschema->coreapi>=2.1.1->django-rest-swagger==2.1.1->-r requirements.txt (line 4))
Installing collected packages: appdirs, Django, django-filter, uritemplate, requests, MarkupSafe, jinja2, coreschema, itypes, coreapi, openapi-codec, simplejson, djangorestframework, django-rest-swagger, psycopg2, pyparsing, gunicorn
 Found existing installation: appdirs 1.4.3
 Uninstalling appdirs-1.4.3:
 Successfully uninstalled appdirs-1.4.3
 Found existing installation: pyparsing 2.2.0
 Uninstalling pyparsing-2.2.0:
 Successfully uninstalled pyparsing-2.2.0
Successfully installed Django-1.10.5 MarkupSafe-1.0 appdirs-1.4.0 coreapi-2.3.0 coreschema-0.0.4 django-filter-1.0.1 django-rest-swagger-2.1.1 djangorestframework-3.5.4 gunicorn-19.7.0 itypes-1.1.0 jinja2-2.9.5 openapi-codec-1.3.1 psycopg2-2.7 pyparsing-2.1.10 requests-2.13.0 simplejson-3.10.0 uritemplate-3.0.0

However, because our Django application (and the related Docker files) is contained in a subdirectory off the repo root (i.e. in the /budget_proj/ folder) – and because I was an idiot at the time and didn’t know about the -f parameter for docker-compose , so I was convinced I had to run docker-compose from the same directory as docker-compose.yml – docker-compose didn’t have access to files in the parent directory of wherever it was launched.  Apparently Docker effectively “chroots” its commands so it doesn’t have access to ../bin/requirements.txt for example.

So when docker-compose launched pip install -r requirements.txt, it could only access this one and gives us this result instead:

Step 12/12 : WORKDIR /code
 ---> 8626fa515a0a
Removing intermediate container 05badf699f66
Successfully built 8626fa515a0a
Recreating budgetproj_budget-service_1
Attaching to budgetproj_budget-service_1
web_1 | Running docker-entrypoint.sh...
web_1 | [2017-03-16 00:31:34 +0000] [5] [INFO] Starting gunicorn 19.7.0
web_1 | [2017-03-16 00:31:34 +0000] [5] [INFO] Listening at: http://0.0.0.0:8000 (5)
web_1 | [2017-03-16 00:31:34 +0000] [5] [INFO] Using worker: sync
web_1 | [2017-03-16 00:31:34 +0000] [8] [INFO] Booting worker with pid: 8
web_1 | [2017-03-16 00:31:35 +0000] [8] [ERROR] Exception in worker process
web_1 | Traceback (most recent call last):
web_1 | File "/usr/local/lib/python3.5/site-packages/gunicorn/arbiter.py", line 578, in spawn_worker
web_1 | worker.init_process()
web_1 | File "/usr/local/lib/python3.5/site-packages/gunicorn/workers/base.py", line 126, in init_process
web_1 | self.load_wsgi()
web_1 | File "/usr/local/lib/python3.5/site-packages/gunicorn/workers/base.py", line 135, in load_wsgi
web_1 | self.wsgi = self.app.wsgi()
web_1 | File "/usr/local/lib/python3.5/site-packages/gunicorn/app/base.py", line 67, in wsgi
web_1 | self.callable = self.load()
web_1 | File "/usr/local/lib/python3.5/site-packages/gunicorn/app/wsgiapp.py", line 65, in load
web_1 | return self.load_wsgiapp()
web_1 | File "/usr/local/lib/python3.5/site-packages/gunicorn/app/wsgiapp.py", line 52, in load_wsgiapp
web_1 | return util.import_app(self.app_uri)
web_1 | File "/usr/local/lib/python3.5/site-packages/gunicorn/util.py", line 376, in import_app
web_1 | __import__(module)
web_1 | File "/code/budget_proj/wsgi.py", line 16, in <module>
web_1 | application = get_wsgi_application()
web_1 | File "/usr/local/lib/python3.5/site-packages/django/core/wsgi.py", line 13, in get_wsgi_application
web_1 | django.setup(set_prefix=False)
web_1 | File "/usr/local/lib/python3.5/site-packages/django/__init__.py", line 27, in setup
web_1 | apps.populate(settings.INSTALLED_APPS)
web_1 | File "/usr/local/lib/python3.5/site-packages/django/apps/registry.py", line 85, in populate
web_1 | app_config = AppConfig.create(entry)
web_1 | File "/usr/local/lib/python3.5/site-packages/django/apps/config.py", line 90, in create
web_1 | module = import_module(entry)
web_1 | File "/usr/local/lib/python3.5/importlib/__init__.py", line 126, in import_module
web_1 | return _bootstrap._gcd_import(name[level:], package, level)
web_1 | ImportError: No module named 'rest_framework_swagger'
web_1 | [2017-03-16 00:31:35 +0000] [8] [INFO] Worker exiting (pid: 8)
web_1 | [2017-03-16 00:31:35 +0000] [5] [INFO] Shutting down: Master
web_1 | [2017-03-16 00:31:35 +0000] [5] [INFO] Reason: Worker failed to boot.
budgetproj_web_1 exited with code 3

Coda

It has been pointed out that not only is it redundant for the project to have two requirements.txt files (I agree, and when we find the poor soul who inadvertently added the second file, they’ll be sacked…from our volunteer project ;)…

…but also that if we’re encapsulating our project’s core application in a subdirectory (called budget_proj), then logically that is where the “legit” requirements.txt file belongs – not at the project’s root, just because that’s where you normally find requirements.txt in a repo.

Status Report: Docker Toolbox failures on Windows 10

TL;DR

A growing body of experience building containers on Windows 10 systems (using the Docker Toolbox for Windows) indicates that Docker Toolbox for Windows (on Win10 at minimum) is not a supportable combination for our project at present.  It appears that the command in docker-compose.yml cannot be found – at least in cases where the called script is stored in a directory inside the container.

While there may be some adjustment that could be made to support both Windows and *NIX hosts in this scenario, it’s yet another incompatibility we’ve encountered (among many) that only crops up when using Windows as the host, and our team has to focus its cycles on supporting the majority of our project’s developers (who aren’t on Windows).

Problem

One of my colleagues on the project reported the following error when bringing up the Docker container from this branch in this repo.  He’s using Windows 10, Docker Toolbox for Windows:

user@DESKTOP MINGW64 /c/develop/python/team-budget/budget_proj (dockerize)
$ docker-compose up
Starting budgetproj_web_1

ERROR: for web Cannot start service web: oci runtime error: container_linux.go:247: starting container process caused "exec: \"/code/docker-entrypoint.sh\": stat /code/docker-entrypoint.sh: no such file or directory"
ERROR: Encountered errors while bringing up the project.

I explained that as far as I understand Docker engine and Docker Toolbox (which hosts the engine in a Virtualbox VM), what’s going on is that inside the container, Docker is trying to execute /code/docker-entrypoint.sh – so theoretically there should be no reason why this would behave any differently on Windows than Mac or Linux, since the runtime environment inside the Docker container shouldn’t know anything about its underlying host’s environment.  I know for sure it’s working well on Mac and Linux, even on my personal Mac that’s running the Docker Toolbox.

Investigation

Budget repo on Windows: fails

I attempted this myself with the same branch/repo using Docker Toolbox for Windows (downloaded today, running v1.13.1 of Docker engine) on Windows 10 (Anniversary update), and received effectively the same result:

...

Step 12/12 : WORKDIR /code
 ---> 37cb2ce39964
Removing intermediate container af6440be2e49
Successfully built 37cb2ce39964
WARNING: Image for service web was built because it did not already exist. To rebuild this image you must use `docker-compose build` or `docker-compose up --build`.
Creating budgetproj_web_1
Attaching to budgetproj_web_1
web_1  | standard_init_linux.go:178: exec user process caused "no such file or directory"
budgetproj_web_1 exited with code 1

Budget repo on Mac: succeeds

The same commit from the same branch/repo on OS X 10.11 with Docker Toolbox for Mac:

...

Step 12/12 : WORKDIR /code
 ---> 0da697ffe35c
Removing intermediate container d4df9c99e8f9
Successfully built 0da697ffe35c
Recreating budgetproj_web_1
Attaching to budgetproj_web_1
web_1 | Operations to perform:
web_1 | Apply all migrations: admin, auth, budget_app, contenttypes, sessions
web_1 | Running migrations:
web_1 | Applying contenttypes.0001_initial... OK
web_1 | Applying auth.0001_initial... OK
web_1 | Applying admin.0001_initial... OK
web_1 | Applying admin.0002_logentry_remove_auto_add... OK
web_1 | Applying contenttypes.0002_remove_content_type_name... OK
web_1 | Applying auth.0002_alter_permission_name_max_length... OK
web_1 | Applying auth.0003_alter_user_email_max_length... OK
web_1 | Applying auth.0004_alter_user_username_opts... OK
web_1 | Applying auth.0005_alter_user_last_login_null... OK
web_1 | Applying auth.0006_require_contenttypes_0002... OK
web_1 | Applying auth.0007_alter_validators_add_error_messages... OK
web_1 | Applying auth.0008_alter_user_username_max_length... OK
web_1 | Applying budget_app.0001_initial... OK
web_1 | Applying budget_app.0002_auto_20170221_0359... OK
web_1 | Applying sessions.0001_initial... OK
web_1 | [2017-03-01 21:42:05 +0000] [10] [INFO] Starting gunicorn 19.6.0
web_1 | [2017-03-01 21:42:05 +0000] [10] [INFO] Listening at: http://0.0.0.0:8000 (10)
web_1 | [2017-03-01 21:42:05 +0000] [10] [INFO] Using worker: sync

So I tried this on a couple of other of our organization’s projects.

Housing repo on Windows: fails

Housing-17 under Docker Toolbox for Windows on Windows 10:

$ docker-compose up --build
Building web
Step 1/6 : FROM python:3.5
 ---> 4e5ed9f6613e
Step 2/6 : ENV PYTHONUNBUFFERED 1
 ---> Using cache
 ---> a62a6ae73cec
Step 3/6 : ADD ./requirements.txt /provision/
 ---> Using cache
 ---> 9f34a7d35294
Step 4/6 : WORKDIR /provision/
 ---> Using cache
 ---> 4e06b4c2249f
Step 5/6 : RUN pip install -r requirements.txt
 ---> Using cache
 ---> e96a581fc549
Step 6/6 : WORKDIR /code/
 ---> Using cache
 ---> fc61cc36c06f
Successfully built fc61cc36c06f
Starting housing17_db_1
Starting housing17_web_1
Attaching to housing17_db_1, housing17_web_1
db_1   | LOG:  database system was shut down at 2017-03-01 19:38:08 UTC
db_1   | LOG:  MultiXact member wraparound protections are now enabled
db_1   | LOG:  database system is ready to accept connections
web_1  | standard_init_linux.go:178: exec user process caused "no such file or directory"
housing17_web_1 exited with code 1

Housing repo on Mac: succeeds

Housing-17 under Docker Toolbox for Mac on OS X 10.11:

...

Step 6/6 : WORKDIR /code/
 ---> Using cache
 ---> f79cbc2964cb
Successfully built f79cbc2964cb
Starting housing17_db_1
Starting housing17_web_1
Attaching to housing17_db_1, housing17_web_1
db_1 | LOG: database system was shut down at 2017-03-01 03:26:27 UTC
db_1 | LOG: MultiXact member wraparound protections are now enabled
db_1 | LOG: database system is ready to accept connections
web_1 | 
web_1 | 0 static files copied to '/code/static', 126 unmodified.
web_1 | [2017-03-01 21:50:00 +0000] [7] [INFO] Starting gunicorn 19.6.0
web_1 | [2017-03-01 21:50:00 +0000] [7] [INFO] Listening at: http://0.0.0.0:8000 (7)
web_1 | [2017-03-01 21:50:00 +0000] [7] [INFO] Using worker: sync

Emergency_response repo on Windows: fails

Emergency-response-backend under Docker Toolbox for Windows on Windows 10:

... 

---> d1dece959fab
Removing intermediate container 446d7dae0532
Step 14/14 : COPY . /code/
 ---> d12ccbed9557
Removing intermediate container 27809cb3988a
Successfully built d12ccbed9557
WARNING: Image for service web was built because it did not already exist. To rebuild this image you must use `docker-compose build` or `docker-compose up --build`.
Creating emergencyresponsebackend_web_1
Attaching to emergencyresponsebackend_web_1
web_1  | standard_init_linux.go:178: exec user process caused "no such file or directory"
emergencyresponsebackend_web_1 exited with code 1

Emergency_response repo on Mac: succeeds/fails (but for an application-specific reason)

Emergency-response-backend under Docker Toolbox for Mac on OS X 10.11:

Step 14/14 : COPY . /code/
 ---> bc4a1bd8e372
Removing intermediate container e9b079ea31da
Successfully built bc4a1bd8e372
WARNING: Image for service web was built because it did not already exist. To rebuild this image you must use `docker-compose build` or `docker-compose up --build`.
Creating emergencyresponsebackend_web_1
Attaching to emergencyresponsebackend_web_1
web_1 | Traceback (most recent call last):
web_1 | File "manage.py", line 10, in <module>
web_1 | execute_from_command_line(sys.argv)
web_1 | File "/usr/local/lib/python3.4/site-packages/django/core/management/__init__.py", line 367, in execute_from_command_line
web_1 | utility.execute()
web_1 | File "/usr/local/lib/python3.4/site-packages/django/core/management/__init__.py", line 316, in execute
web_1 | settings.INSTALLED_APPS
web_1 | File "/usr/local/lib/python3.4/site-packages/django/conf/__init__.py", line 53, in __getattr__
web_1 | self._setup(name)
web_1 | File "/usr/local/lib/python3.4/site-packages/django/conf/__init__.py", line 41, in _setup
web_1 | self._wrapped = Settings(settings_module)
web_1 | File "/usr/local/lib/python3.4/site-packages/django/conf/__init__.py", line 97, in __init__
web_1 | mod = importlib.import_module(self.SETTINGS_MODULE)
web_1 | File "/usr/local/lib/python3.4/importlib/__init__.py", line 109, in import_module
web_1 | return _bootstrap._gcd_import(name[level:], package, level)
web_1 | File "<frozen importlib._bootstrap>", line 2254, in _gcd_import
web_1 | File "<frozen importlib._bootstrap>", line 2237, in _find_and_load
web_1 | File "<frozen importlib._bootstrap>", line 2226, in _find_and_load_unlocked
web_1 | File "<frozen importlib._bootstrap>", line 1200, in _load_unlocked
web_1 | File "<frozen importlib._bootstrap>", line 1129, in _exec
web_1 | File "<frozen importlib._bootstrap>", line 1471, in exec_module
web_1 | File "<frozen importlib._bootstrap>", line 321, in _call_with_frames_removed
web_1 | File "/code/emergency_response_api/settings.py", line 16, in <module>
web_1 | from . import project_config
web_1 | ImportError: cannot import name 'project_config'
web_1 | Traceback (most recent call last):
web_1 | File "manage.py", line 10, in <module>
web_1 | execute_from_command_line(sys.argv)
web_1 | File "/usr/local/lib/python3.4/site-packages/django/core/management/__init__.py", line 367, in execute_from_command_line
web_1 | utility.execute()
web_1 | File "/usr/local/lib/python3.4/site-packages/django/core/management/__init__.py", line 316, in execute
web_1 | settings.INSTALLED_APPS
web_1 | File "/usr/local/lib/python3.4/site-packages/django/conf/__init__.py", line 53, in __getattr__
web_1 | self._setup(name)
web_1 | File "/usr/local/lib/python3.4/site-packages/django/conf/__init__.py", line 41, in _setup
web_1 | self._wrapped = Settings(settings_module)
web_1 | File "/usr/local/lib/python3.4/site-packages/django/conf/__init__.py", line 97, in __init__
web_1 | mod = importlib.import_module(self.SETTINGS_MODULE)
web_1 | File "/usr/local/lib/python3.4/importlib/__init__.py", line 109, in import_module
web_1 | return _bootstrap._gcd_import(name[level:], package, level)
web_1 | File "<frozen importlib._bootstrap>", line 2254, in _gcd_import
web_1 | File "<frozen importlib._bootstrap>", line 2237, in _find_and_load
web_1 | File "<frozen importlib._bootstrap>", line 2226, in _find_and_load_unlocked
web_1 | File "<frozen importlib._bootstrap>", line 1200, in _load_unlocked
web_1 | File "<frozen importlib._bootstrap>", line 1129, in _exec
web_1 | File "<frozen importlib._bootstrap>", line 1471, in exec_module
web_1 | File "<frozen importlib._bootstrap>", line 321, in _call_with_frames_removed
web_1 | File "/code/emergency_response_api/settings.py", line 16, in <module>
web_1 | from . import project_config
web_1 | ImportError: cannot import name 'project_config'
...

(Note: the runtime error in “manage.py” indicates that the command in docker-compose.yml was executed correctly, and there’s an app-specific issue in running one of the commands inside the docker-entrypoint.sh script that docker-compose.yml specifies.)

Potentially related issues re: Docker running on Windows

Absolute paths change with git bash on Windows

Docker Build Image fails with ‘NOT FOUND’ executing…

Bash script always prints command not found (perhaps a missing ‘execute’ bit, that only affects commands running in a Docker container when running on Docker Toolbox for Windows?)

 

Bug Reports: hoopla + comics

An occasional series of the bugs I attempt to report to vendors of software I enjoy using.

Bug #1: re-borrow, can’t read

I borrow a comics title on Hoopla, it eventually expires. I re-borrow it, then when I try to read it reports “There was an error loading Ex Machina Book Two.” error.

I tried a half-dozen times to Read it. I killed the app and restarted it, then tried to Read, still the same error.  I am unable to find a delete feature in the app, so I cannot delete and re-download the content.

This same error has happened to me twice with two different comics titles.  I only read comics via hoopla, so I cannot yet report if this happens for non-comics content.

Repro steps

  • Open Hoopla app on my device, browse to the title Ex Machina Book Two
  • Tap the Borrow button, complete the Downloading phase
  • Tap the Read button – result: content loads fine
  • Wait 21+ days for DRM license to expire
  • Browse to the same title, tap Borrow
    (Note: it take no time at all to switch to the Read button, which implies it just downloads a fresh DRM license file)
  • Tap the Read button

Expected Result

Book opens, content is readable.

Actual Result

App reports Error “There was an error loading…”, content does not load:

hoopla error re-borrowing comic.png

User Environment

iPad 3, iOS 9.3.5, hoopla app version 4.10.2

Bug #2: cannot re-sort comics

I browse the “Just added to hoopla” section of Comics, and no matter which sorting option I choose, the list of comics appears in the exact same order. Either this is a coincidence, or the sorting feature doesn’t work (at least in this particular scenario).

Repro steps

  • Open the hoopla app on my device, tap the Books tab
  • Tap the Comics selector across the top of the app window, then tap the Genres link at the top-right corner
  • Select the option Just added to hoopla
  • Scroll the resulting comics titles in the default popular view, noting that [at time of writing] three Jughead titles appear before Superman, Betty & Veronica and The Black Hood
  • Tap the new arrivals and/or A-Z view selectors along the top

Expected Result

The sort order of the displayed comics would change under one or both views (especially under the A-Z view, where Jughead titles would be listed after Betty & Veronica). The included titles may or may not change (perhaps some added, some removed in the new arrivals view, if this is meant to show just the most recently-added titles).

Actual Result

The sort order of the displayed comics appears identical to the naked eye.  Note that in the A-Z view, the Jughead comics continue to appear at the top, ahead of the Betty & Veronica comic:

hoopla sort order in A-Z view.png

User Environment

iPad 3, iOS 9.3.5, hoopla app version 4.10.2

Docker container commands: which goes where?

So far in my DevOps class I’ve encountered three separate places where we use parameterized commands to perform some of the Docker setup and runtime execution.

I’ve been having a conceptual crisis of confidence because I don’t definitively understand which kinds of commands go where.  So this is my exercise in deciphering the lay of the land.

Dockerfile, docker-compose.yml, docker-compose run

Here’s what I think I have inferred from what we’ve done in class tutorials:

  • Dockerfile
    • can contain one or more commands prefaced with the RUN directive
    • these will run commands outside of the to-be-built Docker container, to setup the appropriate files and environment to make the build successful
    • presumably you should do as little as necessary out here
    • example command: RUN pip install -r requirements.txt
  • docker-compose.yml
    • configures the set of containers that will be built and run together (one or more)
    • command to be run once the container is up and running
    • ?? Only one command can be configured per container ??
    • example command: command: gunicorn fooapi.wsgi:application -b :8000
  • docker-compose run [container_name]
    • commands can be run one time, arbitrarily, outside the build process itself
    • example command: docker-compose run web django-admin.py startproject fooapi .

My Confusions

  1. If my web application needs to have all the python packages installed as dependencies, why isn’t pip install -r requirements.txt being run once the appropriate container is up and running?
  2. If the use of a RUN command in Dockerfile creates a scratch space outside all containers, why would I need to install python dependencies to be able to create a PostgreSQL container cf. Assignment 3? [Leaving aside the advice I’ve heard that putting databases in containers isn’t generally necessary or advisable]
  3. What is the net effect of running commands inside the “docker-compose run [container_name]” wrapper?  Why couldn’t/shouldn’t I run that command as a RUN command from the Dockerfile, and then copy the resulting files into the /code folder that we’re creating in Assignment 3?
  4. Does docker-compose run run commands inside an already-built container?

As I learn answers to these questions, with any luck I’ll return here to annotate what I’ve learned.